Welcome back to Earth, Orion!
Today, at 12: 40 PM EST the Orion spacecraft made its grand entrance back on Earth after an unofficial time of 25 days 10 hours 54 minutes 50 seconds in space. It traveled 1.4 million miles through space and orbited the Moon, collecting crucial data along the route. Orion safely landed in the Pacific Ocean, off the Baja Coast near Guadalupe Island, around 300 miles south of San Diego where the landing was originally planned.
Orion entered the Earth’s atmosphere traveling at about 25,000 miles per hour, before its reentry and its parachutes brought the spacecraft down to roughly 20 mph before splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.
Orion performed its crucial crew module separation at 12: 00 PM EST and began the crucial entry interface stage at 12: 20 PM EST. Entry interface was described as the “moment of truth,” for Orion, where the spacecraft’s important heat shield felt the effects of temperatures of 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Orion also experienced the expected blackout periods when NASA lost contact with it for a few minutes.
According to NASA aerospace engineer Koki Machin, Orion’s 11 parachutes are very similar to the ones that accompanied the Apollo missions, with the larger size of Orion’s parachutes being the primary difference. Orion’s parachutes, also known as hybrid parachutes, are made from both nylon and Kevlar. Kevlar is an extremely strong aramid fibre that’s used to make bulletproof vests.
A recovery team comprised of NASA’s Exploration Ground Systems engineers and technicians and Navy divers and sailors from the USS Portland arrived in San Diego, California, just after Thanksgiving to rehearse recovering the space capsule.
The team practiced off the California coast, by bringing in a mock capsule to load onto the ship. The amphibious USS Portland has both a flight deck as well as a well deck that leads out to the ocean.
“The mission that we’re doing is kind of amphibious in nature; it’s just … normally were recovering marine vehicles or hovercraft, instead of doing that, we’re just grabbing the orbital,” USS Portland Captain John Ryan told NBC 7 San Diego.
Since Orion doesn’t have any crew members onboard (except for its “moonikins“), the team had a roughly six hour long window to retrieve the capsule.
In a press conference on December 5, Orion Deputy Program Manager Debbie Korth said, “We’re really pushing the envelope with this spacecraft to see what we can get out of performance,” referring to longer burn times for the spacecraft’s engines (from 17 seconds to 100 seconds) and thermal response from solar arrays.
Orion will be returning to Kennedy Space Center in the latter part of this month. NASA will take away the vehicle’s accelerometers and mannequins as well as dosimeters and microphones for further research.
The Artemis I Mission launched on November 16 and is the first integrated test of NASA’s latest deep space exploration technology: the Orion spacecraft itself, the all-powerful Space Launch System rocket, and the ground systems at Kennedy Space Center. It is the first of three missions and will provide NASA more information about non-Earth environments and the health effects of space travel. It also demonstrates the agency’s ability to return astronauts from the moon.
Artemis I and II will also pave the way to land the first woman and first person of color on the moon as early as 2025 as part of Artemis III. “When we talk about sustained exploration on the lunar surface and getting onto Mars, Artemis I is that step,” James Free, associate of NASA’s Exploration Systems Development, said in August. “Our next step beyond that is Artemis II, and we’re putting an crew on it
According to NASA Administrator Bill Nelson, the ambitious goal of advancing human space travel to reach Mars will come after Artemis III. NASA hopes to establish a base on the moon and send astronauts to the Red Planet by the late 2030s or early 2040s.
“It’s one that marks new tech,” Nelson said about Orion, Artemis I and the Artemis I missions on Sunday. “We do this as an international venture and that DNA is that we are adventurers, that we are explorers, that we always have a frontier. That frontier is to continue exploring the skies .”
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